New research challenges the widespread belief that white meat, such as chicken, is better for cholesterol levels than red meat, such as beef, pork, or lamb.

新的研究挑战了人们普遍认为白肉(如鸡肉)比红肉(如牛肉、猪肉或羔羊肉)对胆固醇水平更好的看法。

A new study breaks some bad news for meat eaters, as researchers find that white meat is just as harmful to cholesterol levels as red meat.

一项新的研究为食肉者带来了一些坏消息,因为研究人员发现白肉和红肉一样对胆固醇水平有害。

The paper counters the widespread belief that white meat is more healthful than red. This belief relies on a variety of observational studies that have found a link between red meat intake and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.

这篇论文反驳了人们普遍认为白肉比红肉更健康的观点。这一观点依赖于各种观察研究,这些研究发现红肉摄入量与心血管疾病的高风险之间存在联系。

However, the authors of the new research argue that the connection between white meat and cholesterol has not received enough attention in specialized literature.

然而,这项新研究的作者认为,在专门的文献中,白肉和胆固醇之间的关系还没有得到足够的重视。

So, a team of researchers — spearheaded by senior author Dr. Ronald Krauss, senior scientist and director of Atherosclerosis Research at the Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute in California — set out to investigate this link in more detail.

因此,一个由资深作者罗纳德·克劳斯博士(Ronald Krauss博士)(加利福尼亚州奥克兰儿童医院动脉粥样硬化研究所的资深科学家和主任)领导的研究小组,开始更详细地研究这一联系。

Dr. Krauss and colleagues tested how different meat intakes affected the levels of lipids and lipoproteins that can cause fatty deposits to form on the arteries. They published their findings in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

克劳斯博士和他的同事们测试了不同的肉类摄入量是如何影响脂肪和脂蛋白的水平的,这些脂肪和脂蛋白会导致脂肪沉积在动脉上。他们在美国临床营养杂志上发表了他们的发现。

Comparing meat and nonmeat intake

比较肉类和非肉类摄入量

The researchers divided healthy men and women into two groups, according to whether they regularly consumed high levels of saturated fatty acids or low levels of saturated fatty acids.

研究人员将健康的男性和女性分为两组,根据他们是否经常摄入高水平的饱和脂肪酸或低水平的饱和脂肪酸。

Within these two arms of the study, the researchers randomly assigned the participants to a red meat group, a white meat group, and a nonmeat protein diet group.

在这两个研究范围内,研究人员随机将参与者分为红肉组、白肉组和非肉蛋白饮食组。

Within each group, the participants — who were 21–65 years old and had a body mass index of between 20–35 kilograms/square meter — consumed the allocated foods for 4 weeks.

在每一组中,21-65岁,体重指数在20-35公斤/平方米之间的参与者,在4周内食用指定的食物。

After the intervention, the researchers measured low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (“bad” cholesterol), levels of apolipoprotein B, small and medium LDL particles, as well as total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (“good” cholesterol).

干预后,研究人员测量了低密度脂蛋白(LDL)胆固醇(“坏”胆固醇)、载脂蛋白B水平、中、小低密度脂蛋白颗粒,以及总胆固醇和高密度脂蛋白(HDL)胆固醇(“好”胆固醇)。

Red and white meat have ‘identical’ effects

红肉和白肉有“相同”的效果

The study found that abstaining from eating meat altogether lowered blood cholesterol much more than researchers had previously believed.

这项研究发现,不吃肉会降低血液胆固醇,这比研究人员先前认为的要低得多。

Consuming both red and white meat raised blood cholesterol levels more than consuming equivalent levels of plant-based proteins. “This was due primarily to increases in large LDL particles,” note the authors.

食用红肉和白肉比食用同等水平的植物蛋白能提高血液胆固醇水平。”这主要是由于大的低密度脂蛋白颗粒的增加。

The raised levels of cholesterol did not depend on whether the diets also had high levels of saturated fats.

胆固醇的升高并不取决于饮食中是否也含有高水平的饱和脂肪。

“When we planned this study, we expected red meat to have a more adverse effect on blood cholesterol levels than white meat, but we were surprised that this was not the case — their effects on cholesterol are identical when saturated fat levels are equivalent.”Dr. Ronald Krauss

“当我们计划这项研究时,我们预计红肉比白肉对血液胆固醇水平有更大的不利影响,但我们惊讶的是事实并非如此——当饱和脂肪水平相等时,它们对胆固醇的影响是相同的。”罗纳德·克劳斯博士

The senior author adds that non-meat protein sources, such as vegetables, dairy, and pulses, have the most beneficial effect on cholesterol levels. However, the authors also note that the study did not include grass-fed beef, fish, or processed meats.

资深作者补充说,非肉类蛋白质来源,如蔬菜、奶制品和豆类,对胆固醇水平有最有益的影响。然而,作者也注意到这项研究不包括草食牛肉、鱼或加工肉类。

“The findings are in keeping with recommendations promoting diets with a high proportion of plant-based food but, based on lipid and lipoprotein effects, do not provide evidence for choosing white over red meat for reducing [cardiovascular disease] risk,” write the researchers.

研究人员写道:“这一发现与建议一致,即提倡使用高比例植物性食物的饮食,但基于脂质和脂蛋白的影响,并不能为选择白肉而不是红肉来降低心血管疾病风险提供证据。”

Dr. Krauss and colleagues conclude, “the present study is the first to show that both categories of meat protein result in LDL concentrations that are higher than those resulting from vegetable protein sources in otherwise comparable diets.”

克劳斯博士及其同事得出结论:“目前的研究首次表明,两类肉蛋白导致的低密度脂蛋白浓度均高于其他类似饮食中蔬菜蛋白来源的低密度脂蛋白浓度。”